Regions and sites
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Hilltop settlement, surrounded by associated burial mound groups. Known for Strettweg cult wagon displayed in Universalmuseum Joanneum at Schloss Eggenberg in Graz. Museum Judenburg holds a replica.
On the Burgstallkogel (458 m) near Kleinklein an extensive Urnfield and Hallstatt-temporal hilltop settlement is documented, which was one of the most important political and economic centers of the Alpine region in the older Hallstatt period. Multiple groups of burials can be found in the surrounding area.
Large monumental tumuli with opulent burials from Early Iron Age. Beside the known and visible tumuli other mounds were detected by archaeological prospection. Some settlement finds and assumed settlement areas that need further clarification. Visitor center planned in nearest future.
Dolenjske toplice, Slovenia
A well researched Iron age complex consisting of a fortified hilltop settlement with a monumental entrance, remains of an iron smelting complex, three seperate funerary sites and a smaller presumably sattelite settlement. A part of an arheological trail Cvinger.
Complex of Poštela is situated on north-eastern fringes of the Pohorje hills. It consists of a fortified settlement which is located on the highest elevaton, under the hiltop settlement there was a flat cremation cemetery known as "Lepa ravna" and two saparete groups of burial mounds. Individual barrows were also present on the slopes of Pohorje, south of the settlement. Monumental Kos barrow is located on the flatlands, as is the large Barrow group in Pivola. In the vicinity (Hoče) in botanical garden of University of Maribor several burial mounds are located and are a part of a future (september 2019) archaeological park. The botanical garden is also showcasing Iron Age plants –
Tourists can enjoy Iron Age food in the nearby restaurant Pri Baronu -
Eponymous find site of the older Iron Age with prehistoric cemetery and salt mining in the Upper Austrian Alps. The village is not only known for its salt, but is especially famous for its general picturesque appearance, its location at the Hallstatt lake, the painted skulls in the medieval karner and above all as a name-giving finding place for the Hallstatt culture; since 1997 H. has been a World Heritage Site. A special feature is the preservation conditions in the salt mine, which were also able to conserve organic material such as textiles, leather and raw hides and thus offer insight into a material cultural group, which is usually not preserved otherwise. Hallstatt is an important trade hub of the Iron Age and imported goods from the west and east show its position at the intersection of the eastern and western circles of the older Iron Age.
On the hill Gurina on the northern side of an alpine valley in Carinthia settlement structures, burial mounds and a sanctuary from Early Iron Age running into Roman period were excavated. It is most famous for venetic inscriptions showing that this site was and important comminication point between the Hallstatt culture and northern italic cultural groups. It is also one of the first points that shows roman contact within a late celtic alpine territory.
Neolithic, Bronze Age and Late Iron Age hilltop settlement. Massive Late Iron Age fortification, thus considered a local oppidum. In situ reconstruction of parts of the excavated Late Iron Age settlent, experimental archaeology.
Multiperiod site starting in Bronze Age. From Iron Age round altar, almost 2 m in diameter, hewn out of the rocks. Ruins of prehistoric, megalithic city. Most likely the development here started thanks to an important prehistoric shrine, this site was the possible location of the Temple of Dionysius. Construction started around 5000 BC. Around the Roman times here was built massive palace with several stories and massive fortification walls with up to 2.8 m thick walls. Ruins of ancient church, built around the end of 4th – early 5th century. In the vicinity a rocky mountaintop which may have served as a sacred site since the Iron Age. In the time period between the 4th and 1st century BC around the mountain was built a stone wall and sanctuary was built inside.
The Sboryanovo Historical and Archeological Reserve is situated in the western part of the Ludogorsko Plateau along the banks of the Krapinets River, between the villages of Malak Porovets and Sveshtari, in the Isperih Adminstrative Region. It is a unique complex of age-old villages, sanctuaries, and necropolises. The site was declared an official historical-archeological reserve by Decision 19 of the Ministry Council taken on December 8, 1988. As of the present, the complex has registered more than 140 archeological sites from different historical eras. The most interesting of these are The Sveshtari Necropolis, the Islamic tomb of Demer Baba, a fortified Thracian city, the Thracian sanctuary Kamen Rid (Rocky Heights), and a Medieval village near the small settlement Byuven.The most noteworthy discovery in the complex is the Sveshtari Tomb, a Thracian king’s sanctuary and necropolis. It was unearthed in 1982 during excavations of Burial Mound №7 at the Sboryanova Eastern Necropolis Mound (The Ginina Necropolis). Built in the 3rd century BCE, it occupies a unique place in Thracian tomb architecture. Thanks to its remarkable architectural and aesthetic features, this site was included among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1985.
In the Iron Age, Segestika was the oldest protourban entity in continental Croatia. Mostly visible Roman remains (archaeological park Siscia - in situ). To be opened: archaeological park Sv. Kvirin.
Vizače (Nesactium), Croatia
A prominent centre for the Illyrian Histrians in the first millennium BC. They continued to live there right up to late classical times, i.e. the early Christian era. In Nesactium, bronze pails decorated with figures, fragments of jewellery, weapons and ceramics have been found, along with examples of monumental stonework, representing the greatest achievements of prehistoric artistic creativity on Croatian soil.
Boudy, Czech Republic
One of the best documented Hallstatt Period hillforts, known as ‘Hrad’ near Čimelice. The site consists of two dry stone ramparts and an internal wall, all of which regularly encircle the top of the dominant hill. Different sections of the enclosures may have been built by various groups of the surrounding population using a variety of techniques. Recent archaeological excavations at the site indicate that the site may have served as a central place for the new colonists, as their meeting place for special events, celebrations and other ceremonies. It could also have been used as a sanctuary. Boudy is the best-preserved two-area hill fort dominating the landscape from a hill, which is 574 meters above sea level near the Lomnice and Skalice rivers. The summit has an almost round appearance. The internal rampart, which was carefully constructed from dried boulders, has a circumference of 244 m. It has remained distinctly massive to this day. The outer rampart isn't nearly as massive or so well preserved. Its circumference is 420 m and in some places a ditch appears on its inner side. The original entrance to the hill fort isn't known. On the western side the outer rampart has been evidently disturbed by a street-like structure. The entrance to the inner area was most likely from the north or northeast. One enters the area today from a way that was most likely knocked through the feature in the middle ages. A substantial part of the hill fort, mainly the outer rampart was destroyed through the removal of stone to build the surrounding villages.
Býčí skála, Czech Republic
The Býčí skála Cave in the Moravian Karst represents the oldest archaeological cave site in Moravia. The remains of the settlements, stretching from the Palaeolithic to the Early Iron Age, have been discovered since the mid-19th century. The famous bronze statuette of a bull, two large cremation grounds with the remains of 40 people, some animal bones and a number of unique finds (ceramic and bronze vessels, iron weapons, decorative items of gold and bronze, thousands of glass and amber beads or the unique remains of three or four chariots) were among the discoveries. The interpretation of the site remains unclear, a cultic or sacrificial function is debated most often. The cave is 7 km long, whereby archaeological material appeared in the entrance part (‘Předsíň’ [entrance hall] and ‘Jižní odbočka’ [southern branch]). During World War II, the cave was irretrievably damaged by laying a concrete floor in the Entrance Hall. The site cannot be accessed year-round; guided tours for the public are being organized in May.
Stradonice u Pátku, Czech Republic
One of a few spectacular prehistoric hillforts not covered by a forest today and, thus, providing a stunning panoramic view of the Central Bohemian Uplands. The univallate hillfort at the ´Na šancích’ site was built in the Hallstatt Period. The fortification consists of several sections constructed using different techniques. A monumental wood and earth rampart on the northeast side originally had a frontal stone screen wall, a palisade and an outer ditch. Today, the ‘Stradonka’ watchtower, built in an assumed Iron Age form, stands on top of the rampart. The hillfort may have served as a refuge in times of danger, for meetings of local communities to conduct religious ceremonies, festivals and/or as a market place. It could therefore also have been an ideological centre and a source of tribal identity and prestige.
Šťáhlavy (-Hájek), Czech Republic
The ‘František Xaver Franc Archaeological Nature Trail’ commemorates the prominent 19th-century amateur archaeologist. The trail runs through ‘Kozel’ forest, the site of a remarkable range of preserved prehistoric and medieval relics. The local landscape was preserved so well because it has been covered by a forest since the 15th century. Visitors pass through an Eneolithic hilltop settlement and a Bronze and Iron Age barrow cemetery. Next to these, medieval features such as hollow ways, ponds, fields, a gold panning site, a deserted village, a fortified manor and a castle with a siege camp may be seen, as well as some remnants of Early Modern forest crafts.
Věnec, Czech Republic
The monumental ‘Věnec’ (‘Wreath’ in Czech) Hallstatt Period hillfort is situated at the edge of the inhabited foothills of the Šumava Mts. Its massive fortification consists of an acropolis and an extensive annexe. The whole enclosed fortified area covers nearly 8 ha. The ramparts are made of stone walls attached to natural rock blocks at a number of places. Due to the limited excavations and a small number of finds, we can only speculate on the function of the site. It most probably served as an occasional refuge or gathering point of local people rather than a permanent residence.
Závist, Czech Republic
There is easy access to the oppidum of Závist. Today, it is covered by woodland, but parts of the fortification are still visible, with several gates and an « Acropolis » at the summit. Between 1963 and 1989, the site was regularly excavated by the Archaeological Institute of Prague. It is listed as an historic monument. A footpath with several information boards leads to the Acropolis at the top of the oppidum. Here, the visitor will find several information boards, and colour-marked signs which indicate the main archeological remains.
Archaeological park with 18 stations, many at Iron Age sites, some in situ reconstructions. Kelheim is the site of a large Iron Age oppidum from the La Tène period, which has been tentatively identified with the Celtic city of Alcimoennis mentioned by Ptolemy in his Geography. The ramparts of the fort cross the promontory between the rivers Altmühl and Danube. There is an inner defensive line enclosing 60 ha near the confluence, then a long outer rampart enclosing an enormous area of 630 ha. A small promontory fort on the other bank of the Danube has a series of short linear ramparts protecting a settlement in the bend of a meander. This is aligned with the end of the outer rampart on the far bank, dominating traffic on the river
Old Orhei (region), Moldova
Orheiul Vechi Archaeological Landscape - Central-eastern part of Moldova along the gorge of the lower course of the Răut River, 14 km upstream from the confluence of the Răut and the Dniester Rivers. Iron Age settlements in „Peştera” and „Butuceni” Promontory.
A large number of necropolises with tumuli, as well as fortified settlements rose along the Ćehotina valley, especially around villages of Mataruge, Kakmuža, Hoćevina and Gotovuša. The tumuli found in Ljutići, Gotovuša and Borovica have been archeologically researched.
Sarmizegetusa Regia, Romania
This fortress was built in the 1st century BC and AD. Chr. under Dacian rule. They show an unusual fusion of military and religious architecture from the classical world and the late European Iron Age. It is considered the core of the core of the Dacian kingdom, and was conquered by the Romans at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. UNESCO World Heritage. Archaeological park
Șimleu Depression, Romania
3 hillforts: 1. Middle Bronze Age Hillfort on Pleșa hill; 2. Early Iron Age forti- ﬁed settlement on the hill of Iertașul Petacilor; 3. Fortiﬁed settlement from the end of the Early Iron Age on Paliș hill. All in direct vicinity of Marca village.
The Iron Age settlement at Ciumeşti was a small rural community, of which 8 houses have been excavated. These were spread over a large area, and the general pattern was of houses organized in groups of 3 or 4, each group also having a larger central structure with two rooms. The spatial distribution of the dwellings indicates that the settlement was organized on a clan system (Zirra 1980:69-70, Rustoiu 2006:66). Finds from the settlement include Celtic wheel-made ceramic, as well as local hand-made pottery, again indicating a symbiotic relationship between the newly arrived Celts and the local population – a phenomenon to be observed throughout the eastern Celtic migration. A large La Têne funerary complex was discovered at the site, of which 33 burials have been excavated. The cemetery has been broadly dated to the La Têne B2b – C1 period, which in Transylvania corresponds to the period between 280/277 – 175 BC (Horedt 1973:32, 2006:43). Three of the excavated graves were warrior burials indicating that the percentage of warriors in this community during the period in question was circa 9%.
A Celtic oppidum and metal works center that existed in the 3rd-1st century BC were found between the Halish and Lovachka mountains. A Thracian fort of the Iron Age (10th century BC) was found on the mountain of Tupcha. Around the 1st century the area was occupied by the Carpi people who displaced the local Celts from the area. In Mukachevo, at the foot of the mountain Lovachka, stands a beautiful estate "Celtic yard."
Malaja Kopaňa, Ukraine
Important fortification of the Late Latène and the beginning of the Roman Empire on the Chustsko-Rokov Mountains on the right bank of the river Tisa. The ramparts belong to the Dacian ramparts of the type "DAVA", it was founded around the middle of the 1st century BC. Its origin is associated with the advance of the Dacian tribes to the north after their consolidation and strengthening of their power in Transylvania. In its heyday, it was an important centre of production and power for the Dacian settlement in Carpathian Ukraine. The ramparts were destroyed by a great fire and its settlement ended at the beginning of the 2nd century A.D. The decline of the special position and the decline of the ramparts is due to the change of the political situation and order in the eastern part of the Carpathian Basin, which was caused by the Dacian-Roman wars and the subsequent emergence of the province of Dacia.
The strategically located town on the river Uh, on the long-distance road that led through the river valley to the north into the Carpathians and to the south into Eastern Slovakia, has had intensive settlement activities since prehistory. In the city centre and the surrounding area, hoards and individual finds of bronze pieces from the Late Bronze Age were concentrated. In the early Middle Ages Slavic villages developed on both banks of the river Uh. Monuments from the Latène period were found in several areas: 1st settlement - east of the brickworks on a sand dune above the swampy river bank. Pit houses with fireplaces and grey turned graphite clay ceramics were investigated. 2. the mountain "Zamkovaja" on the right bank of the river Uh. During excavations in a Slavic settlement, a settlement layer with Latène ceramics was discovered. 3rd Radvanka - East of the town on the left bank of the river Uh, a Latène settlement was uncovered during the excavations of the Slavic settlement. The pottery is typologically and spatially very close to that of Hališ-Lovac̆ka in Mukačevo . Remarkable here are traces of metallurgical activity such as clay thrown from the walls of the furnace and iron slag.
Archaeological museum Odessa, Ukraine
Since 1997, the Odessa Archeological Museum has functioned not only as a museum but also as an institute for scientific research into the archeology of prehistoric society in the Northern Black Sea region and the archeology of the Middle Ages.
In the third century B.C. the Celts arrived in the Serbian Danube basin, bringing with them the potter’s wheel and a new type of fortified settlement. One such settlement was discovered in the vicinity of Vršac, on the locality of Židovar. Apart from the remains of architecture, a hoard of silver ornamentation and other objects made of silver has also been discovered in Židovar and today can be seen at the Museum in Vršac.
Tell of Gomolava; beside older periods Late Iron Age settlement on top. Gomolava is prehistoric archeological locality which is situated near Hrtkovci, not far away from Ruma, on the left shore of Sava river. It was settled during six millenniums and is one of the most famous localities in Europe. The multiperiod archeological site is the settlement with horizons of settlements in late Vinča period, eneolithic, early bronze and iron age. The first excavations were in 1904, and from 1953, there is systematic research till today. The dominant horizons are from early iron age. Houses contain a lot of ceramic stoves and pits show autochthonous material and italic import. In the foothill of Gomolave is big Roman necropolis. From XII to XV century there was the village necropolis and the church with the graveyard.
Jánovce, Slovak Repubic
An important centre of Púchov culture in the Spiš region, south of the village. It consists of a fortified settlement on the Hradisko hill (683 m above sea level) and a craftsman residential area in the "Pod Hradiskom" corridor. The site has been known since the 19th century. A systematic excavation did not take place.
Devín, Slovak Repubic
The site has been settled since the Neolithic Age and fortified since the Bronze and Iron Age and later by Celts and Romans. Today a castle ruins are visible - Devín castle is one of the oldest castles in Slovakia. The castle was likely first mentioned in written sources in 864
Novo mesto, Slovenia
Novo Mesto is an important Early Iron age site situated on a double bend of the Krka river. Today this is an urban area of modern Novo mesto. Early Iron age complex of Novo mesto consist of a hillfort at Marof with many cemeteries that were established on both sides of the Krka river. North of the hillfort lies notable Kapiteljska njiva where archaeological excavations are still in process for more than 30 straight years. Excavations have revealed that area was used as a burial site in Late Bronze Age when cremation burial in Urns prevaled, remains of more than 60 Tumuli from Early Iron age were excavated - inhumation was practiced in Iron Age burials - cremation burial was again practiced in Late Iron age when Kapiteljska njiva was used as a necropolis for the last time. Another large necropolis with flat cremation burials that are dated to Late Bronze age and Early Iron age is located north east from Marof and is known as Mestne njive. Third larger necropolis was positioned on the right bank of Krka at Znančeve njive - also known as Kandija. 6 Tumuli with Early Iron age inhumation burials and a Late Iron age flat cremation necropolis that was situated north of the barrows, were researched there, before they were destroyed by the development of the city. Although most of the known data from Novo mesto was gathered through excavations of burials, there are some less explicit indications that suggest other areas in Novo mesto were settled in Early Iron age. The lack of prehistoric settlement remains could be explained in the intensive settlement activities in Roman, Medieval and Modern era.
The Early Iron Age complex of Vače lies above village Klenik in the western part of the hilly region of Posavsko hribovje. The features that belong to the complex are manly located on the western edge of the ridge Zasavska Sveta gora - highest peak is Ostri vrh (744 m). The Iron Age complex consists of a Hilltop settlement Zgornja krona and 9 different necropolises. Today, the area of Vače is remote and subpar conditions for agriculture are in striking opposition to the abundance of Early Iron age remains that were discovered in the area. The hillfort at Zgornja krona is situated on the seddle between Slemšek (677 m) and Špičast hrib (695) with both elevations included into the remains of an enclosure. The funerary areas lie along the western, southern and eastern slopes of the settlement. They consist of both flat and barrow graves that include inhumations and cremated graves, altough flat cremated graves are probably most frequent. Vače Iron age complex has become famus already in 1870s when some of the most prominent archeaologists from Austro-Hungarian state visited the area or were conducting their own excavations. The focus of first excavations was directed into funerary areas and into acquiring of finds that were excavated by locals. Later excavations in 1930s which were led by W. Schmid were conducted on the hillfort. Today we can follow the archaeological trail Vače organized by the association GEOSS - Geometrično središče Slovenije - The trail leads past most visible archaeological remains including an enlarged copy of the famous Situla (the original is displayed in National Museum in Ljubljana).
Magdalenska gora, Slovenia
A cultural trail leads past 10 archaeological landmarks around Šmarje-Sap including the visible mound barrows on Magdalenska gora. The archaeological complex of Magdalenska gora consists of an enclosed hilltop settlement with three recognized funerary areas. The area was settled in the Late Bronze age, but rose in prominence in the Early Iron age, when it became one of the more important sites in the SE Alpine region.